Munroe, S. "Jacques Cartier." canadaonline.about.com. About.com, n.d. Web. 30 May 2012. <http://canadaonline.about.com/od/exploration/p/jacquescartier.htm>.



Jacques Cartier

-claimed Canada for france
-French explorer
-first European to map Gulf of St. Lawrence & shores of St.Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas"
-named Canada after Native names (misunderstood village name "Kanata" for whole area)
-searched for NW passage to Asia
-discovered PEI in 1534


external image jacques_cartier.jpg


Elizabeth I



Hanson, M. "Queen Elizabeth I." Englishhistory.net. N.p., 2011. Web. 30 May 2012. <http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/eliz1.html>.



-very gifted scholar and accomplished linguist with ability to speak several languages (Latin, Greek, Welsh, French, Spanish)
-great poets + playwrights emerged during her era (william shakespeare, for example)
- reign witnessed widespread increase in literacy & great achievements in arts
-reign saw significant expansion overseas-- great explorers (Sir Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, etc.)
-reputation as wise ruler
-defeated Spanish Armada of 132 by English fleet of 34 ships & established Protestantism as Country's religion
-established the Poor Laws--achieved a new framework of support for needy
-achieved recognition for England as leading power in Europe
-lead England as a woman, in a man's world--was courageous, intelligent and loyal


TIMELINE



1533 - On September 7, 1533, Elizabeth the First was born at Greenwich palace

1536 - On May 2nd 1536, Elizabeth's mother Anne Boleyn was arrested and locked in the Tower. On May 15th, she was tried for adultery, incest and treason in the Great Hall of the Tower of London. Following the trial, Elizabeth's mother was executed on May 19th and buried in an unmarked gave in the Chapel of St. Peter. Soon, Henry VIII formally betrothed Jane Seymour and on 30th of May he was married to her.

1537 - Jane Seymour died in childbirth after delivering her son, on October 12,and the future King of England, Edward VI. Princess Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. She spend her childhood in Hatfield House, Hertfordshire after this declaration.

1540 - King Henry VIII marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled. On July 28, he married the nineteen-year-old Catherine Howard, cousin of Queen Elizabeth's mother.

1542 - Catherine Howard was executed for adultery on February 13. The nine-year-old Elizabeth the First was distressed by this incident, because Catherine Howard was kind to her.

1547 - King Henry VIII, father of Queen Elizabeth dies and Edward VI became the new King of England. Elizabeth the First lives with Katherine Parr, the sixth wife of King Henry VIII, and her new husband Thomas Seymour.

1548 - 1551 - Elizabeth the First leaves the household of Katherine Parr because of rumors of a love affair with Thomas Seymour. Princess Elizabeth I returns to the court of the young King Edward in the year 1551.

1553 - King Edward VI died on July 6 because of tuberculosis. He had left the throne to the Lady Jane and her male heirs. Lady Jane is proclaimed the Queen of England. However, she is dethroned on July 19th and Elizabeth's half-sister Mary I was declared as the Queen of England. Queen Mary I is also known as bloody Mary because she persecuted the Protestants.

1558 - Queen Mary I leaves for heavenly abode on November 17th and on the same day Elizabeth I is declared as the next Queen of England.

1559 - On January 13, Elizabeth I is crowned as the Queen of England. She re-established the Protestant Anglican Church. The Elizabethan Prayer book was introduced for the first time on June 24, 1559.

1560 - On July 6, the Queen of England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh between England, France and Scotland.

1561 - Queen Elizabeth the First signed a Treaty at Hampton Court promising to support the French Huguenots.

1562 - Queen Elizabeth canceled the meeting with Mary, Queen of Scots on July 15. The reason was the Queen of Scots attacked French Protestants. Queen Elizabeth I was seriously ill after she caught smallpox.

1563 - Elizabeth the First established the Anglican Church once the Thirty-nine Articles was established. The Queen moved her court to Windsor Castle. She had erected gallows there. "Black Death" or bubonic plague affected London. As per her order, anyone who came from London was to be hanged.

1564 - 1568 - Queen of England demands the share of profit from slave trade from John Hawkins. Elizabeth I on 1568 at Fotheringhay Castle imprisoned Mary, the Catholic Queen of Scots.

1568 - 1572 - There was a conspiracy against Elizabeth the First by the Nevilles and Percys of Northumberland. Queen of England, Elizabeth I exonerates the Queen of Scots from the charges made against her. Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1570. On January 2, 1571, marriage was negotiated between Elizabeth the First and Henry, Duke of Anjou. The same year Sir William Cecil was made the Lord of Burghley.

1573 - 1581 - Queen Elizabeth I appointed Sir Francis Walsingham as Secretary of State and chief spymaster of England in 1573. On November 14, 1575, Elizabeth declined the approval and acceptance the Sovereignty of Netherlands. She formed an alliance between England and Netherlands. On October 7, 1579 the Privy Council failed to support Queen Elizabeth I in the marriage treaty with the Duke of Anjou. However, on November 7, 1581, the marriage treaty was signed.

1585 - On August 14, Queen Elizabeth the First declined the offers of Dutch commission for sovereignty of the Low Countries. However, she brought Netherlands under the protection of the crown.

1586 - July 1, Queen of England and King James VI of Scotland signed the Treaty of Berwick. The same year on October 25, Mary, Queen of Scots was convicted for her participation in a conspiracy against Elizabeth I.

1600 - 1601 - The Queen of England, Elizabeth I granted charter to East India Company. The crown implemented Elizabethan Poor Law. As per this Law, parish registers for poor were introduced to help the needy. On February 25th , Queen Elizabeth the First Ordered the execution of Earl of Essex on the basis of treachery.

1603 - On March 24, Queen of England, Elizabeth the First died of blood poisoning.

When Elizabeth I came to power, England was an insignificant country. However, at the time of her death England had become the major political power in whole of Europe.







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